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4 August 1770
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4 August 1770

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4 August 1770

Saturday 4th In the PM having pritty Moderate weather I order'd the Coasting anchor and Cable to be laid without the barr to be ready to warp out by, that we might not loose the least oppertunity that might offer for I am very Anxious of geting to Sea laying in Port spends time to no purpose, consumes our provisions of which we are very Short in many articles, and we have yet a long Passage to make to the East Indias through an unknown and perhaps dangerous Sea, these circumstances considerd, makes me very anxious of geting to sea. The wind continued moderate all night untill ^and at 5 oClock in the morning when it fell calm this gave us an oppertunity to warp out. about 7 we got under sail having a light air from the land which soon died away and was succeeded by the Sea breeze from SEBS with which we stood off to Sea EBN having the Pinnace ahead sounding, the Yawl I sent to the Turtle bank to take up the net that was left there but as the wind freshen'd we got out before her, and a little after noon anchor'd in 15 fathom water Sandy bottom, for I did not think it safe to run in among the Shoals untill I had well View'd them at low-water from the Mast head, that I might be better able to judge which way to steer for as yet I had not resolved whether I should beat back to the Southward round all the shoals or seek a passage to the Eastward or to the northrd all of which ^appear'd to be equally difficult and dangerous When at Anchor the harbour sail'd from bore St 70° West distant 41/2 or 5 Leagues, the northermost point of the Main land we had in sight which I name'd Cape Bedford / Latde 15°..1715' St Longitude 1214°..45' Wt / bore N. 20° West distant 31/2 Leagues, but we could see land to the NE of this Cape which made like two high Islands, the Turtle banks bore East distant 1 Mile, Latitude by observation 15°..23' St our depth of water in standing off from the land was from 31/2 to 15 fathom. I shall now give a Short decription of the harbour ^or River we have been in which I named after the Ship. Endeavour River ———————————————

it is only a small bar Harbour or Creek which runs in about ^winding 3 or 4 Leagues in land at the head of which is a small fresh water brook as I was told for I was not so high myself, but there is not water for shiping above a Mile within the bar and this is on the north side where the bank is so steep for nearly a quarter of a mile that ships may lay a float at low-water so near the shore as to reach it with a stage and is extreamly convineint for heaving a ship down and this is all this harbour River hath to recommend it especially for large shipping for there is no more than 9 or 10 feet water upon the bar at low-water and 17 or 18 feet at high, the tides riseing and falling about 9 feet at spring tides and is high-water on the days of the new and full Moon between 9 and 10 oClock    besides this part of the Coast is so barricaded with shoals as to make this harbour still more difficult of access, the safest way I know off to come at it is from the Southward keeping the Mainland close on board all the way, its situation may always be found by the Latitude which hath been before mentioned,    over the South point is some high land but the north point is forme'd by a low sandy beach which extends about 3 Miles to the northward then the land is again high. The refreshments we got here were chiefly Turtle, but as we had to go five Leagues out to Sea for them and had much blowing weather ^we were not over stock'd with this article, however what with these and the fish we caught in the Sain we had not much reason to complain considering the Country we were in,    whatever refreshment we got that would bear a division I caused to be equally divided amongest the whole compney generally by weight, the meanest person in the Ship had an equal share with my self or any one on board and this method every commander of a Ship on such a Voyage as this ought ever to observe    We found in several places on the sandy beaches and sand Hills near the Sea Purslain and beans which growes on a creeping kind of a Vine,   the first we found very good when boild and the latter not to be despised and were at first very servicable to the sick, but the best greens we found here was the Tarra or Cocco tops ^called in the West Indias Indian Kale which grow in most Boggy places, these eat as well as or better than spinnage, the roots for want of being transplanted and properly cultivated were not good yet we could have dispenced with them could we have got them in any tolerable plenty   but having a good way to go for them it took up too much time and too many hands to gather both root and branch: the few Cabbage Palms we found here were in general so small and yeilded so little Cabbage that they were not worth the looking after and this was the case with most of the fruits &Ca we found in the woods. Besides the Animal which I have before mentioned called by the natives Kangooroo or ^Kanguru here are Wolves, Possums, an Animal like a ratt and snakes both of the Venomous and other sorts    Tame Animals here are none except Dogs and of these we never saw but one who frequently came about our tents to pick up bones &Ca   The Kangura are in the greatest number for we seldom went into the Country without seeing some. The Land fowls we met with here ^which far from being numerous were Crows, Kites, Hawks, Cockadores of two sorts the one white and the other brown, very beautifull Lorryquets of two or three sorts, Pidgions, Doves and a few other sorts of small birds. The Sea or water fowl are Herns, Whisling Ducks which pearch and I beleive roost on trees, Curlews &Ca and not many of these neither    some of our Gentlemen who were in the Country heard the noise of Wild Geese and saw them flying in the night ^and saw wild Geese in the Night

The Country as far as I could see is deversified with Hills and Plains and these with Woods and Lawns   the soil of the Hills is hard dry and very stoney yet it produ[c]eth a thin Course grass and some wood: the soil of the Plains and Vallies is sandy and in some places Clay and in many places it is ^parts very Rocky and stoney as well as the hills, but in general the land is pretty well clothed with long grass, wood, shrubs &Ca The whole country abounds with an immence number of Aunt hills some of which are 6 or 8 feet high and more than double that in circuit   Here are but few sorts of trees besides the Gum tree which is the most numerous and is the same as we found on the Southern part of the Coast only here they do not grow ^near so large. On each side of the Harbour River and all the way up the creek it are Mangroves which extend in some places a Mile from its banks —

the Country in general is not badly water'd there being several fine Rivulets at no very great distance from one another, but none near to the place where we lay, at least not in the Dry season which is at this time, however we were very well supply'd with water by Springs which were not far off —


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